Table 2 Change in living standards during the COVID-19 crisis in nine developing countries.

This table shows statistics from 16 household survey samples in nine countries. Columns denote the share of households or individuals experiencing a (1) drop in income, (2) drop in employment, (3) reduced access to markets, (4) having health care access delayed, (5) having to reduce or miss the amount of meals, and (6) receiving NGO or government support. Column (7) shows the total number of households surveyed in each sample. Column (7) shows the maximum number of observations available for analysis in each study though specific measures are sometimes based on smaller samples. The division of respondents in each sample into “higher” and “lower” socioeconomic status is based on that respondent’s status within each sample, based on baseline consumption expenditure (BGD1–4, KEN1, and SLE1), baseline household income (BGD5, KEN2–3, and NPL1), and a Poverty Probability Index (others). Data from KEN1 are restricted to the first round of surveys. Blank cells denote that no data were available. These results are reproduced with standard errors in Appendix in the Supplementary Materials fig. S1.

Share of households experiencing:
Drop in
income
Drop in
employment
Reduced
access to
markets
Health
care access
delayed
Missed or
reduced
meals
Received NGO
or government
support
Number of
households
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Bangladesh
  BGD1. Rural sample0.810.250.040.100.022229
    Lower SES within sample0.820.160.040.110.021102
    Higher SES within sample0.800.340.040.090.021127
  BGD2. Rohingya refugees from Myanmar0.440.310.310.270.26367
    Lower SES within sample0.430.280.260.270.26175
    Higher SES within sample0.440.350.370.270.26192
  BGD3. Communities living near refugee camps0.730.160.250.230.02532
    Lower SES within sample0.820.180.270.270.03274
    Higher SES within sample0.640.140.230.180.01258
  BGD4. Participants in a lottery for
agricultural work permits
0.710.290.100.090.022936
    Lower SES within sample0.720.290.100.100.031440
    Higher SES within sample0.700.280.100.090.021496
  BGD5. Landless rural agricultural laborers0.790.030.690.49294
    Lower SES within sample0.700.040.740.52145
    Higher SES within sample0.870.020.640.46149
Burkina Faso
  BFA1. National sample (RECOVR)0.630.290.490.110.280.251357
    Lower SES within sample0.690.320.560.090.350.19631
    Higher SES within sample0.560.250.420.120.200.31726
Colombia
  COL1. National sample (RECOVR)0.870.490.680.430.590.281507
    Lower SES within sample0.950.510.710.410.750.43217
    Higher SES within sample0.860.490.670.440.560.251290
Ghana
  GHA1. National sample (RECOVR)0.840.330.300.110.520.221633
    Lower SES within sample0.860.300.350.110.500.19654
    Higher SES within sample0.830.350.270.110.540.24979
Kenya
  KEN1. Rural households in NGO cash
transfer study
0.690.130.670.480.068572
    Lower SES within sample0.690.170.660.520.073171
    Higher SES within sample0.680.110.680.460.063148
  KEN2. UNHCR refugees0.080.300.150.560.111332
    Lower SES within sample0.071.000.150.560.111084
    Higher SES within sample0.120.060.130.550.08248
  KEN3. National sample0.250.370.200.420.004052
    Lower SES within sample0.130.530.200.420.003139
    Higher SES within sample0.640.140.280.300.00913
Nepal
  NPL1. Agricultural households in western Terai0.390.190.111945
    Lower SES within sample0.340.180.13800
    Higher SES within sample0.430.190.091145
Philippines
  PHL1. National sample (RECOVR)0.520.420.770.350.401389
    Lower SES within sample0.580.500.810.410.43364
    Higher SES within sample0.500.380.750.320.391025
Rwanda
  RWA1. National sample (RECOVR)0.810.410.470.140.560.081482
    Lower SES within sample0.850.410.490.150.580.08720
    Higher SES within sample0.760.430.440.130.530.09762
Sierra Leone
  SLE1. Towns that are candidates for rural
electrification
0.560.050.160.060.870.342439
    Lower SES within sample0.570.070.150.060.900.30981
    Higher SES within sample0.560.050.160.060.850.371458
  SLE2. National sample (RECOVR)0.820.450.640.060.560.101304
    Lower SES within sample0.860.470.680.060.600.11806
    Higher SES within sample0.710.390.540.040.460.07498
Median share of respondents across
samples
0.700.300.310.130.450.11