Table 1 Swarm formation tests in flowing blood conditions inside a tube (diameter: 2.6 mm).

Flow rate (mean velocity)Field parameters (dms)Formation timeArea ratio (Sflow/Sstagnant)
Case I1 ml/min (3.1 mm/s)30 mm, 6 Hz10 ± 2 s94 ± 3%
Case II2 ml/min (6.3 mm/s)30 mm, 6 Hz10 ± 4 s95 ± 4%
Case III3 ml/min (9.4 mm/s)30 mm, 6 Hz××
Case IV3 ml/min (9.4 mm/s)20 mm, 6 Hz16 ± 5 s87 ± 6%
Case V3 ml/min (9.4 mm/s)20 mm, 8 Hz12 ± 3 s92 ± 4%
Case VI4 ml/min (12.6 mm/s)20 mm, 8 Hz15 ± 4 s82 ± 8%