Table 1 Descriptive sample details.

Sample size, number of males, left-handers, and smokers are given as absolute numbers; fluid reasoning and memory abilities are given as mean intelligence quotient (IQ) scores ± SD.

Athlete studyTraining study
Memory athletesMatched controlsMemory training groupActive controlsPassive controls
n1716171617
Males99171617
Age (years), means ± SD24.6 ± 4.325.4 ± 3.923.7 ± 2.724.3 ± 2.524.4 ± 3.8
Age (years), range19–3220–3520–2920–2918–30
Fluid reasoning128.1 ± 9.6128.4 ± 10.8117.4 ± 12.7116.4 ± 14.6118.2 ± 13.2
Memory abilitiesNot tested104.6 ± 27.8103.3 ± 13.3100.8 ± 21.9101.8 ± 16.2
Left-handers33000
Smokers11000