Table 2 Free recall and recognition performance across groups of the training study.

Free recall performance during the immediate and delayed free recall tests, performance during the retest after 4 months, as well as d-prime scores during temporal order recognition. Values represent the average number of freely recalled words/d-prime ± SD.

Memory training group (n = 17)Active controls (n = 16)Passive controls (n = 17)
Free recall performance
Pre-training session25.2 ± 16.930.7 ± 14.628.9 ± 15.4
Immediate free recall after 20 min
Pre-training session16.1 ± 14.219.4 ± 12.518.5 ± 15.4
Delayed free recall after 24 hours
Post-training session62.2 ± 10.941.7 ± 16.336.4 ± 19.4
Immediate free recall after 20 min
Post-training session56.2 ± 16.230.5 ± 17.821.4 ± 19
Delayed free recall after 24 hours
Retest after 4 months50.3 ± 16.5 (n = 16)30.4 ± 9.9 (n = 14)27.4 ± 9.8 (n = 15)
Change in free recall performance22.7 ± 18.8 (n = 16)−0.7 ± 9.9(n = 14)−1.5 ± 11.2 (n = 15)
(4 months > pre-training, immediate test)
Temporal order recognition
Pre-training session, d-prime1.3 ± 1.31.6 ± 0.51.6 ± 1.1
Post-training session, d-prime2.5 ± 0.62.1 ± 1.32.3 ± 0.9