Table 4 Agents and actions for change to create enabling conditions for transformative changes in food production and consumption for the post-2020 biodiversity framework.

AgentsActions for changeKey actions
Small-/medium-scale farmersDiversification of production activities; recognizing importance of biodiversity; collective
action with other farmers, including to establish wildlife corridors with other land users;
and engagement with standards and ecological intensification
3, 4
Large-scale producersDiversification of production activities; integrating values/costs of biodiversity; science-
based commitments and targets and transparent reporting on progress (including to no
net loss and restoration activities); promote agrobiodiversity, ecological intensification,
agroecology; compliance with sustainability standards and legal requirements; and
scrutiny over transactions including “publish what you pay” for agribusiness
2, 3, 4, 5, 7
CitizensAwareness of biodiversity impacts in supply chains; shifts in perceptions and behavior
(reduced consumption of unsustainable foods, diet); social learning; citizens assemblies;
hold industry and government to account; citizens assemblies; local green politics;
urban farming
3, 6, 8
Local communities and indigenous
Hold industry and government to account; citizens assemblies; local green politics; urban
farming; and value and maintain local and traditional knowledge related to food
2, 4, 8
Local/regional governmentsHold industry to account; sustainable procurement; taxation; awareness campaigns; and
stronger anti-corruption measures
7, 8
Non-governmental organizations/
Civil society organizations
Holding governments and industry to account to recognize and address biodiversity loss
and links with production and consumption of food; education of consumers;
supporting activist groups; strengthening standards; and strict requirements for
engaging with business
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
BusinessesLegal compliance; companies adopt doughnut economics model; science-based
commitments (including to no net loss and restoration activities); companies held to
account and able to demonstrate compliance with regulations and standards;
transparency of reporting; resources dedicated to implementation of strong
commitments including social aspects and meaningful engagement with diverse range
of stakeholders; financing independent legal support where needed; internalizing costs
of monitoring; sustainable procurement; and diverse business models including social
enterprises and cooperatives
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Consultants/ExpertsGreater independence and codes of conduct on representation of private interests; peer
review; and integrating local and traditional knowledge
2, 3
GovernmentsMonitoring; review current incentive programs; enforcement of regulations; support to
low-income groups for sustainable healthy diets; stronger controls of advertising
encouraging unsustainable product purchases; taxation/levies; supporting alternative
development pathways: GDP alternatives (incorporation of quality of life/well-being/
just sustainability); anticorruption measures; delivering awareness campaigns to citizens
and businesses; develop and democratize natural capital accounting systems that
incorporate noneconomic values; regulate companies to reduce and report on food loss
and waste reduction; and require, develop and support standards for sustainable
production and consumption
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Standards bodiesStrengthen compliance and assurance mechanisms of standards; introducing stronger
biodiversity aspects in standards; strengthen transparency measures; shift from single
commodity certification to valuing diverse landscape use and agroecology; and valuing
diverse perspective and knowledges
3, 4, 8
Research communitiesExchanging multidisciplinary knowledge with policy communities; valuing diverse
perspective and knowledges; supporting social and technological innovation; and
attention to justice and equity concerns, capacity building, methodologies for
accountability including in no net loss and restoration activities
2, 5, 6, 8
Funding agenciesConsistently including biodiversity concerns in financing decisions; use of mitigation
hierarchy (for limiting as far as possible the negative impacts on biodiversity from
development projects) including clear “no development” option if biodiversity loss
too great; considerations of funding habitat restoration; and microcredit schemes
for biodiversity
7, 8
Private investorsEngagement with biodiversity issues and sustainable production and consumption;
incorporating strong environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria into screening
processes; divestment from most harmful industries; promotion of or engagement in
development and inclusion of biodiversity driven standards along the supply chain, Life
Cycle Assessment; and invest in income-sensitive, efficient storage technologies
5, 7, 8