Table 1 Key actions from science-policy fora and their proposed targets and indicators.

OECD, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

ActionCBD Updated Zero
Draft target
Proposed targetsProposed indicators
1. Remove
incentives that
make food
production and
consumption
harmful to
biodiversity
E. 12. (c) 17.By 2025, parties identify incentives harmful to
biodiversity.
Number of countries with policy plans for removal
or reform of incentives harmful to biodiversity.
Percentage of harmful subsidies removed and/or
redirected (e.g., at least 50% by 2030, 100% for
2050).
By 2025, develop policy plans, including a prioritized list
of measures, with timelines, leading to the eventual
removal, phase-out, or reform of incentives harmful to
biodiversity
Sector-level government financial transfers to
agriculture [Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD)
databases].
By 2025, redirect capacity-enhancing subsidies (subsidy
programs that lead to disinvestments in natural capital
assets once the fishing capacity develops to a point
where resource exploitation exceeds the Maximum
Economic Yield) to support sustainable activities.
Proportion of assessed fish stocks that are
overfished [Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations (FAO) statistics].
2. Accounting for
true value and
true costs of
production by
sector
E. 12. (c) 13.By 2025, a system of natural capital accounting is
developed including economic, cultural, social,
intrinsic, and intergenerational values of biodiversity,
including diverse conceptualization of multiple values
of nature.
Frequency of use of valuation tools that assess the
diverse conceptualization of multiple values of
nature and its benefits.
Number of countries that have developed natural
capital accounting systems in their National
Development Plans, which take into account the
explicit role of nature into poverty reduction
strategies and other key development plans, by
including economic, cultural, social, intrinsic,
and intergenerational values of biodiversity.
3. Reduce food
waste and loss
across supply
chains
Not explicitly
mentioned. Other
relevant targets: E.
12. (b) 9, E. 12. (c)
14, E. 12. (c) 15.
By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail
and consumer levels and reduce food losses along
production and supply chains, including postharvest
losses.
Use of Accounting and Reporting Standard (Food
Loss and Waste Protocol Standard).
Number of countries reporting to Global Food Loss
Index and National Food Loss Index.
4. Strengthen
sustainability
standards and
certification
Not explicitly
mentioned. relevant targets: E.
12. (b) 9, E. 12. (c)
14, E. 12. (c) 15.
By 2025, sustainability certification standards strengthen
biodiversity requirements, including No Net Loss as a
minimum and management and monitoring of
conservation areas (e.g., areas of High Conservation
Value as specified in standards).
Number of companies with biodiversity
commitments/policies and their market share.
By 2025, producing governments require minimum
sustainability standard for export.
Number of companies reporting against SMART
biodiversity indicators.
By 2025, consuming countries require sustainability
certification for import of high-biodiversity risk
commodities.
% of ISEAL Alliance members with stronger
biodiversity requirements, including No Net
Loss as a minimum, and management and
monitoring of conservation areas (e.g., High
Conservation Value areas).
By 2025, sustainable public procurement plans adopted
by governments.
By 2025, sustainability certification standards include
recognition of need for enhancing agrobiodiversity,
land sharing, and multifunctionality.
Use of Biodiversity Impact Indicators for
Commodity Production (BIICP).
By 2025, standards include recognition and autonomous
rights of indigenous people and local communities.
5. Promote the use
of life cycle
assessments
Not explicitly
mentioned. Other
relevant targets: E.
12. (b) 9; E. 12. (c)
14; E. 12. (c) 15.
By 2025, Life Cycle Assessment and ecological footprints
are made freely available to the consumer when
buying a product.
Ecological footprint across life cycle of product.
By 2025, data are aggregated and monitored at municipal/
national levels using standardized protocols.
By 2025, Life Cycle Assessment reporting includes multiple
stakeholders, e.g., small-scale farmers and informal markets.
Number of products with life cycle assessments.
By 2025, waste management is tracked and disclosed at
all levels of Life Cycle Assessments.
6. Promote
sustainable and
varied diets
Not explicitly
mentioned. Relevant
targets: E. 12. (b) 8, E.
12. (b) 9; E. 12. (c) 15.
By 2025, develop dietary guidelines that address health
and environmental sustainability, promoting a more
diverse and nutritionally balanced diet of fruits,
vegetables, meat, and seafood.
Number of countries with dietary guidelines that
address both health and sustainability.
Meat consumption kilograms per capita.
Seafood consumption kilograms/capita (FAO
statistics).
By 2025, develop incentives for redirecting reduction
fisheries (i.e., fisheries, often on lower trophic levels,
that process their catch into fish meal or fish oil) to
direct human consumption.
Quantities of reduction fisheries (FAO statistics).
By 2025, develop incentives for increased mariculture of
edible sea plants and filter feeders.
Quantities of maricultured sea plants and filter
feeders (FAO statistics).
Financial incentives for environmentally friendly and
healthy food production and consumption.
SDG 12.1.1 Number of countries with sustainable
consumption and production (SCP) national
action plans or SCP mainstreamed as a priority
or a target into national policies.
By 2025, schools provide sustainable varied meals to
children up to the age of 12, following the dietary
guidelines.
SDG 2.1.2 Prevalence of moderate or severe food
insecurity in the population, based on the Food
Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES).
7. Mainstream
biodiversity
considerations
in food systems
(cross-cutting)
E. 12. (c) 13, E. 12. (c)
14, E. 12. (c) 15, E. 12.
(c) 16; E. 12. (c) 17; E.
12. (c) 18; E. 12. (c) 19,
E. 12. (c) 20.
Cross-cutting action: Implementation of actions contributes to mainstreaming biodiversity (Fig. 1). Includes
integrating biodiversity into national and local planning, development processes, and poverty reduction and
accounts.
8. Strengthen
governance of
sustainable food
production and
consumption
(cross-cutting)
G. 14. (a), G. 14. (b), G.
14. (g), H. 15, H. 16, H.
17, H. 18.
Cross-cutting action: Strengthening governance within and beyond the CBD contributes to the implementation
of actions and creates “enabling conditions” for effectiveness (Fig. 1). Undertaken through implementation of
relevant laws and policies, agreeing to harmonized indicators to measure progress, allocating and funding
monitoring bodies, and creating a system of robust and transparent reporting and use of enforcement
mechanisms.