Table 2 Summary of actions related to sustainable food production and consumption in the SDGs, Aichi Targets, the CBD Zero Draft, and the CBD Updated Zero Draft.

Full policy wording in table S3.

ActionsSDGsAichi TargetsCBD Zero DraftCBD Updated Zero Draft
1. Remove incentives that make
food production and
consumption harmful to
biodiversity
2.b, 14.6.3D. 12. (c) 12.E. 12. (c) 17.
2. Accounting for true value and
true costs of production by
sector
15.92D. 12. (c) 13.E. 12. (c) 13.
3. Reduce food waste and loss
across supply chains
12.3Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant target: 4.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets: D.
12. (b) 8, D. 12. (c) 14, D.
12. (c) 17.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets: E.
12. (b) 9, E. 12. (c) 14, E 12.
(c) 15.
4. Strengthen sustainability
standards and certification
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets:
2.4, 12.6, 14.4.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets: 4,
6, 7
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets: D.
12 (b) 8, D. 12 (c) 14, D. 12
(c) 17.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets: E.
12. (b) 9, E. 12. (c) 14, E. 12.
(c) 15.
5. Promote the use of life cycle
assessments
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets:
2.4, 8.4.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant target: 4.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets: D.
12. (c) 14; D. 12. (c) 17.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets: E.
12. (b) 9; E. 12. (c) 14; E. 12.
(c) 15.
6. Promote sustainable and varied
diets
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets:
2.4, 14.4.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Other relevant targets: 6,
7.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Relevant target: D. 12. (c)
17.
Not explicitly mentioned.
Relevant targets: E. 12. (b)
8, E. 12. (b) 9; E. 12. (c) 15.
7. Mainstream biodiversity
considerations in food systems
(cross-cutting)
8.44, 19.I. 8. (i), D. 12. (c) 12, D. 12. (c)
13, D. 12. (c) 14, D. 12. (c)
15, D. 12. (c) 16, D. 12. (c)
17, D. 12. (c) 18, D. 12. (c)
19, D. 12. (c) 20.
E. 12. (c) 13, E. 12. (c) 14, E. 12.
(c) 15, E. 12. (c) 16; E. 12. (c)
17; E. 12. (c) 18; E. 12. (c)
19, E. 12. (c) 20.
8. Strengthen governance of
sustainable food production
and consumption (cross-cutting)
2.4, 8.4, 9.4, 12.2, 16.6,
16.7, 16.8.
4, 7, 13, 17, 18.8. (d), 8. (f), 8. (g), F. 14. (g), G.
16. (a), G. 16. (b), Annex I
I. B. 3.
G. 14. (a), G. 14. (b), G. 14. (g),
H. 15, H. 16, H. 17, H. 18.