Table 3 Cross-cutting challenges and enabling conditions in implementing actions for the sustainable production and consumption of food.

NGOs, nongovernment organizations.

ChallengesEnabling conditions to overcome challengesSupporting key actions
Existing economic development trajectories,
including “agriculture for development” through
large-scale high-input farming.
Consideration of more diverse and equitable development pathways
including consideration of biodiversity in food production systems and
development projects (ecological intensification, agroecology).
1, 7, 8
Synergies with other global sustainability agendas.7, 8
Focusing on accountability of key (and sometimes less visible) industries in
demanding sustainable change (e.g., commodity traders).
7, 8
Clear standards and protocols for reporting against targets on biodiversity
and sustainable production and consumption, to be developed and used
by all actors and stakeholders in the production and consumption chain.
3, 4, 5, 7, 8
Gathering more data and establishing harmonized indicators to measure
effectiveness and track progress of policies on sustainable consumption
and production and links with biodiversity.
4, 7, 8
Lack of/weak regulation of unsustainable
production and consumption.
Political will and integrative governance.7, 8
Lack of a unified food system perspective using
important complementarities of agriculture, fishery,
and aquaculture to optimize nutritional value and
Progressive regulation by governments to support more sustainable
production and consumption (i.e., national strategies and action plans
for sustainable consumption and production) to enhance the power of
environmental norms.
Conflicting objectives between stakeholders
(e.g., nongovernmental organizations and
companies) and within stakeholder groups (e.g.,
between government departments).
Taxation and levies to support biodiversity monitoring and research and
pro-poor objectives in food supply chains; incorporating and supporting
Life Cycle Assessment and standards.
4, 5, 7, 8
Lack of compliance by governments against CBD
requirements related to food production and
Setting specific goals to national contexts, matching global targets; more
effective compliance mechanisms within and beyond the CBD through
greater accountability for industry and government practices.
7, 8
Strong resistance from corporate actors and lack of
accountability for private sector and effects on
biodiversity; industry lobbying and political power
maintains business as usual.
Greater engagement and inclusive processes in CBD by agents beyond
conservation professionals, including policy-makers and practitioners in
economic, industry, and trade sectors.
7, 8
Lack of transparency of trade agreements, supply
chains, and commodity prices.
Partnerships, businesses demonstrating leadership through use of
science-based equitable commitments (including to “no net loss” and
restoration activities), strengthening accountability, compliance, transparency, Life Cycle Assessment, and standards.
4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Progressive laws and regulations to hold private sector to account
(including in no net loss and restoration activities).
Uncertainties/complexity in understanding the
direct and indirect impacts of food production and
consumption patterns.
Mutual learning and support: connecting science and policy actors,
indigenous and local knowledge; appreciating and exchanging
respective multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary knowledges.
7, 8
Interdisciplinary scientific and local/indigenous
knowledge undervalued.
Change in behavior at all levels (governments, business, producers, and
7, 8
Sociocultural factors and perceptions of individual
rights, e.g., increasing meat consumption globally;
inequality and uneven consumption patterns; and
lack of consideration of food waste.
Shifts in individuals’ perspectives, including appreciation of diverse
conceptualizations of links between food and nature through
community education activities.
7, 8
Learning how diverse and alternative visions and narratives of sustainability
consider trade-offs and outcomes in relation to sustainable production
and consumption of food.
7, 8