Table 1 Checklist used to measure the strength of evidence about species distributional shifts and their link with climate.

Evaluation criteria
Question of interest: Are distributional changes different from that expected in the absence of major external drivers, that is, by chance?
I. Pattern detection
a. Are range changes analyzed simultaneously across all possible directions of change? Yes = 1, No = 0
b. If so, are the obtained results compared against a null model expectation enabling distinguishing the observed patterns from chance expectation? Yes = 1, No = 0
Question of interest: Are potential causal factors rather than temperature examined in equal footing?
II. Attribution
a. Are explanatory causes of range changes investigated? Yes = 1, No = 0
b. If so, are alternative causal explanations compared on equal footing? Yes = 1, No = 0
Question of interest: Are distributional changes described with sufficient details to enable replication and reanalysis of the results?
III. Reproducibility
a. Are results presented for each individual species? Yes = 1, No = 0
b. If not, is variation among range dynamics of different sets of species described? Yes = 1, No = 0