Table 1 The presentation of cues that were conditioned to opioid withdrawal was sufficient to produce somatic and subjective signs of opioid withdrawal in men who were maintained on methadone for OUD

UR, unconditioned response. Modified from (7), with permission.

VariableUnconditioned
response
Conditioned
response
RespirationIncreaseIncrease
Skin temperatureDecreaseDecrease
Heart rateIncreaseIncrease
Motor responsesIncreaseIncrease
Pupil diameterIncreaseChanges
(nonsignificant)
Subjective reactionSimulates opioid
withdrawal
Indistinguishable
from UR at this dose
(0.1 mg)